UNIT 2, Lessons 3-4, Англійська Мова 8 клас, А.М.Несвіт
Ex. З, p. 35
1. T. 2. T. 3. T. 4. F. 5. T. 6. T
Ex. 4, p. 35
A: Where are you from, Larysa? B: I am from Kyiv.
A: Ah, Kyiv! That is a very beautiful city on the banks of the Dnipro River. What are you doing here, in Artek?
B: At the moment I'm both studying and hawing a rest. I am the President of the
Students' Government in my school, that is why I have a chance to meet other
school leaders from all over Ukraine here, in Artek.
A: Larysa, tell me, please, what do you think of your school life?
B: It is fantastic. There is always something new to learn every day. We enrich our
knowledge about the surrounding world as well as practice our life skills.
A: Are there any things that you don't like about going to school?
B: No, there aren't. I like everything: my friends, teachers, the school building
and the activities we have.
A: Enjoy your staying in Artek!
B: Thank you very much.
Ex. 5, p. 36
1. combines work and leisure; 2. to enrich knowledge; 3. happens; 4. have discussed; 5. to cope with; 6. gets on well; 7. got good knowledge; 8. are understanding and sympathetic.
Ex. 4, p. 39
1. M. 2. N. 3. I. 4. M. 5. I. 6. N.
Ex. 8, p. 41
1. am checking; 2. works; 3. have checked; 4. was checking, came; 5. talk; 6. will run.
Ex. 4, p. 42
1. b. 2. c. 3. b. 4. c. 5. a. 6. c.
Ex. 6, p. 43
Educational System in Ukraine
Ukrainians have always shown a great concern for education. The right to education is stated in the constitution of Ukraine. It's ensured by compulsory secondary schools, vocational schools and higher education establishment. It is also ensured by the development of extramural and evening courses and the system of state scholarship and grants. Education in Ukraine is compulsory up to the 9th form inclusive. The stages of compulsory schooling in Ukraine are: primary education for ages 6-7 to 9-10 inclusive; and senior school for ages 10-11 to 12-13 inclusive, and senior school for ages 13-14 to 14-15 inclusive. If a pupil of secondary school wishes to go on in higher education, he or she must stay at school for two more years. Primary and secondary school together comprise 11 years of study. Every school has a «core curriculum* of academic subjects, such as-
After finishing the 9th form one can go on to a vocational school which offer programmes of academic subjects and a programme of training in a technical field, or a profession.
After finishing the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceum or a gymnasium one can go into higher education. All applicants must take competitive exam. Higher education institution, that is institutes or universities, offer a 5-years programme of academic subjects for undergraduates in a variety of fields, as well as a graduate course and writes a thesis, he or she receives a candidates degree or a doctoral degree.
Higher educational establishments are headed by Rectors. Protectors are in charge of academic and scientific work. An institute or a university has a number of faculties, each specializing councils which confer candidate and doctoral degrees.
The system of higher and secondary education in Ukraine is going trough a transitional period. The main objectives of the reforms are: to decentralize the higher education system, to develop a new financial mechanism, to give more academic freedom to faculties and students. All secondary schools, institutes and universities until recently have been funded by the state. Now there is quite a number of private fee-paying primary and secondary schools, some universities have fee-paying departments.
Ex. З, p. 45
1. с. 2. b. 3. е. 4. d. 5. a.
Ex. 4, p. 45
1. M. 2. E and Mth. 3. E. 4. E and Mth. 5. E and Mth.
Ex. 7, p. 50
a) 1. primary school; 2. nursery school; 3. secondary school; 4. state school; 5. private school; 6. university;
1.1. couple; 2. enjoyed; 3. made; 4. secondary school.
Ex. 9, p. 50
Educational System in Great Britain Types of Schools
All British children must stay at school from the age of 5 until they are 16. Many of them stay longer and take final examination when they are 17 or 18. Before 1965 all children had to go through special intelligence tests. There were different types of state secondary schools and at the age of 11 children went to different schools in accordance of with the results of the tests.
State schools are divided into the following types:
— Grammar schools. Children who go to grammar schools are usually those who show a preference for academic subjects, although many grammar schools now also have some technical courses.
— Technical schools. Some children go to technical schools. Most courses there are either commercial or technical.
— Modern schools. Boys and girls who are interested in working with there hands and learning in a practical way can go to a technical schools and learn some trade.
— Comprehensive schools. These schools usually combine all types of secondary education. They have physic, chemistry, biology laboratories, machine workshops for metal and woodwork and also geography, history and art departments, commercial and domestic courses.
There are also many schools which the State doesn't control. They are private schools. They charge fees for educating children and many of them are boarding schools, at which pupils live during the term time.
After leaving school many young people go to colleges or further education. Those who become students at Colleges of Technology (called "Techs") come from different schools at different ages between 15 and 17.
The lectures at such colleges, each an hour long, start at 8,15 and end at 4,45 in the afternoon.
Schooling is voluntary under the age of 5 but there is some free nursery school education before that age. Primary education takes place in infant schools for pupils ages from 5 to 7 years old and junior schools (from 8 to 11 years). Some areas have different systems in which middle schools replace junior schools and take pupils ages from 9 to 11 years.
Secondary education has been available in Britain since 1944. It is compulsory up to the age of 16, and pupils can stay at school voluntarily up to three years longer.
In 1965 non-selective comprehensive schools were introduced. Most local education authorities were have now completely changed over to comprehensive schooling.
At the age of 16 pupils take school-leaving examinations in several subjects at the Ordinary level. The exam used to be conducted by eight independent examining boards, most of them connected with the university.
This examination could also be taken by candidates at a further education establishment. This exam was called the General Certificate of Education (GCE). Pupils of comprehensive school had taken the examination called the Certificate of Secondary Education either with or instead of the GCE.
A GCE of Advanced ("A") level was taken two years after the Ordinary level exam. It was the standard for entrance to university and to many forms of professional training. In 1988 both examinations were replaced by the more or less uniform General Certificate of Secondary Education.
The private sector is running parallel to the state system of education. There are over 2500 fee-charging independent schools in GB. Most private schools are single-sex until the age of 16. More and more parents seem prepared to take on the formidable extra cost of the education. The reason is the believe that social advantages are gained from attending a certain school. The most expansive day or boarding schools in Britain are exclusive public schools like Eton college for boys and St. James' school for girls.
Ex. 4, p. 52
1. a list of activities and announcements.
2. on school bulletin boards.
3. to see what your schedule will be and join later.
4. age, physical condition, marks and time.
5. list of after-classes activities.
6. try other clubs in the place where you live.
Ex. 5, p. 53
1. join. 2. to enjoy. 3. feel. 4. to keep. 5. joined. 6. to quit. 7. take up. 8. explain. 9. takes. 10. to plan. 11. improve. 12. rejoin. 13. think. 14. feel.